Hemiepiphyseodesis for Juvenile and Adolescent Tibia Vara Utilizing Percutaneous Transphyseal Screws

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Abstract

Background:

In juvenile and adolescent tibia vara patients with sufficient growth remaining, implant-controlled hemiepiphyseodesis, or guided growth, can be used to correct deformity. Recent reports have described hardware failure of certain hemiepiphyseodesis implants in overweight patients with tibia vara. We describe our experience using transphyseal screws to correct deformity in this patient population.

Methods:

A retrospective chart and radiograph review was conducted on all juvenile and adolescent tibia vara patients who underwent lateral proximal tibial hemiepiphyseodesis using a single transphyseal screw. Charts were queried for preoperative and postoperative mechanical axis deviation, medial proximal tibial angle, lateral distal femoral angle, and postoperative complications or need for further surgery.

Results:

In total, 14 affected limbs in 9 patients (6 males) who underwent lateral proximal tibial transphyseal screw hemiepiphyseodesis were considered. Average chronologic age at implantation was 10.4 years and average body mass index was 31.7 kg/m2. At average 23-month follow-up, the average mechanical axis deviation improved from 46 to 0 mm (P<0.001), and the average medial proximal tibial angle improved from 81 to 92 degrees (P<0.001). No limbs underwent further surgery to correct residual deformity. There were no complications or instances of implant failure associated with the transphyseal screws.

Conclusions:

Hemiepiphyseodesis using transphyseal screws is an effective technique to correct deformity in juvenile and adolescent tibia vara patients with sufficient growth remaining. This method can be used safely with few complications and with minimal risk of mechanical failure, even in overweight patients.

Level of Evidence:

Level IV—therapeutic.

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