Evidence supporting the association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels is conflicting and inconsistent.Objectives:
To assess the association of airflow obstruction with self-reported use of solid fuels for cooking or heating.Methods:
We analyzed 18,554 adults from the BOLD (Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease) study, who had provided acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements, and information on use of solid fuels. The association of airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels for cooking or heating was assessed by sex, within each site, using regression analysis. Estimates were stratified by national income and meta-analyzed. We performed similar analyses for spirometric restriction, chronic cough, and chronic phlegm.Measurements and Main Results:
We found no association between airflow obstruction and use of solid fuels for cooking or heating (odds ratio [OR] for men, 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-1.53]; OR for women, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.67-1.15]). This was true for low-/middle- and high-income sites. Among never-smokers, there was also no evidence of an association of airflow obstruction with use of solid fuels (OR for men, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.57-1.76]; OR for women, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.76-1.32]). Overall, we found no association of spirometric restriction, chronic cough, or chronic phlegm with the use of solid fuels. However, we found that chronic phlegm was more likely to be reported among female never-smokers and those who had been exposed for 20 years or longer.Conclusions:
Airflow obstruction assessed from post-bronchodilator spirometry was not associated with use of solid fuels for cooking or heating.