Advancements in nanotechnology have led to the development of the nanomedicine, which involves nanodevices for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. A key requirement for the successful use of the nanoparticles (NPs) in biomedical applications is their good dispensability, colloidal stability in biological media, internalization efficiency, and low toxicity. Therefore, toxicological profiling is necessary to understand the mechanism of NPs and microparticles (MPs). MgO NPs have attracted wide scientific interest due to ease of synthesis, chemical stability and unique properties. However, their toxic effects on humans should also be of concern with the increased applications of nano MgO. The present study was aimed to assess the toxicological potential of MgO NPs in comparison to their micron counterparts in female Wistar rats. Toxicity was evaluated using genotoxicity, histological, biochemical, antioxidant and biodistribution parameters post administration of MgO particles to rats through oral route. The results obtained from the investigation revealed that the acute exposure to the high doses of MgO NPs produced significant (p < 0.01) DNA damage and biochemical alterations. Antioxidant assays revealed prominent oxidative stress at the high dose level for both the particles. Toxicokinetic analysis showed significant levels of Mg accumulation in the liver and kidney tissues apart from urine and feces. Further, mechanistic investigational reports are warranted to document safe exposure levels and health implications post exposure to high levels of NPs.