Effect of drug-coated balloon on stent restenosis, neointimal proliferation, and coronary dissection: an optical coherence tomography analysis

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Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to assess the acute and mid-term effects of drug-coated balloon (DCB) in terms of the healing process of non-flow-limiting dissections and changes in the neointimal area after DCB treatment using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT).

Patients and methods

Thirty-six consecutive patients with in-stent restenosis pretreated with a scoring balloon were evaluated (19 and 17 patients with and without a DCB, respectively). FD-OCT was performed before and after each procedure during percutaneous coronary intervention and at 6 months of follow-up.

Results

Clinical characteristics and baseline FD-OCT findings were comparable between the two groups. No patient required stent implantation because of low-pressure DCB-related dissections. In the acute phase, the DCB distributed paclitaxel to the vessel wall without increasing dissections. The DCB did not reduce the neointimal area by itself. At 6 months, more dissections healed in the DCB group (−4.5±2.3 vs. −2.7±1.3, P=0.02). The DCB group showed less change in the neointimal area (−0.04±0.92 vs. 1.06±1.57 mm2, P=0.03).

Conclusion

The low-pressure DCB was not intended to expand the lumen, but instead to attach paclitaxel to the vessel wall by using FD-OCT examination. The DCB reduced the number of dissections and prevented neointimal proliferation during the mid-term follow-up.

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