Augmented reality navigation in open surgery for hilar cholangiocarcinoma resection with hemihepatectomy using video-based in situ three-dimensional anatomical modeling: A case report

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Patients who undergo hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCAC) resection with concomitant hepatectomy have a high risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality due to surgical trauma to the hepatic and biliary vasculature.

Patient concerns:

A 58-year-old Chinese man with yellowing skin and sclera, abdominal distension, pruritus, and anorexia for approximately 3 weeks.


Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and enhanced computed tomography (CT) scanning revealed a mass over the biliary tree at the porta hepatis, which diagnosed to be s a hilar cholangiocarcinoma.


Three-dimensional (3D) images of the patient's hepatic and biliary structures were reconstructed preoperatively from CT data, and the 3D images were used for preoperative planning and augmented reality (AR)-assisted intraoperative navigation during open HCAC resection with hemihepatectomy. A 3D-printed model of the patient's biliary structures was also used intraoperatively as a visual reference.


No serious postoperative complications occurred, and the patient was tumor-free at the 9-month follow-up examination based on CT results.


AR-assisted preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation might be beneficial in other patients with HCAC patients to reduce postoperative complications and ensure disease-free survival. In our postoperative analysis, we also found that, when the3D images were superimposed 3D-printed model using a see-through integral video graphy display device, our senses of depth perception and motion parallax were improved, compared with that which we had experienced intraoperatively using the videobased AR display system.

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