Empowering Parents of Australian Infants and Children in Hospital: Translation, Cultural Adaptation, and Validation of the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30-AUS Questionnaire

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To translate, culturally adapt, and psychometrically test the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30 questionnaire in Australian pediatric critical care, neonatal, and pediatric ward settings.


Cross-sectional, descriptive, multicenter study conducted in two phases; 1) translation and cultural adaptation and 2) validation of the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30 questionnaire.


Two Western Australian sites, the PICU and two pediatric wards of a children’s hospital and the neonatal unit of a women’s and newborn hospital.


Parents whose baby or child was admitted to the participating wards or units with a length of hospital stay greater than 24 hours.



Measurements and Main Results:

Phase 1: A structured 10-step translation process adhered to international principles of good practice for translation and cultural adaptation of patient-reported outcomes. Thirty parents participated in cognitive debriefing. Phase 2: A total of 328 parents responded to the EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30-AUS questionnaire. Reliability was sufficient (Cronbach α at domain level 0.70 –0.82, for each clinical area 0.56–0.86). Congruent validity was adequate between the domains and three general satisfaction items (rs 0.38–0.69). Nondifferential validity showed no significant effect size between three patient or parent demographic characteristics and the domains (Cohen’s d < 0.36). Between the different clinical areas, significant differences in responses were found in all domains.


The translated and culturally adapted EMpowerment of PArents in The Intensive Care-30-AUS is a reliable and valid questionnaire to measure parent-reported outcomes in pediatric critical care, pediatric ward, and neonatal hospital settings. Using this questionnaire can provide a framework for a standardized quality improvement approach and identification of best practices across specialties, hospital services and for benchmarking similar health services worldwide.

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