The hyperfibrinolytic phenotype is the most lethal and resource intense presentation of fibrinolysis in massive transfusion patients

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Among bleeding patients, we hypothesized that the hyperfibrinolytic (HF) phenotype would be associated with the highest mortality, whereas shutdown (SD) patients would have the greatest complication burden.

METHODS

Severely injured patients predicted to receive a massive transfusion at 12 Level I trauma centers were randomized to one of two transfusion ratios as described in the Pragmatic, Randomized, Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratio trial. Fibrinolysis phenotypes were determined based on admission clot lysis at 30 minutes (LY30): SD ≤0.8%, physiologic (PHYS) 0.9–2.9%, and HF ≥3%. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. Logistic regression was used to adjust for age, gender, arrival physiology, shock, injury severity, center effect, and treatment arm.

RESULTS

Among the 680 patients randomized, 547(80%) had admission thrombelastography (TEG) values available to determine fibrinolytic phenotypes. Compared to SD and PHYS, HF patients had higher Injury Severity Score (25 vs. 25 vs. 34), greater base deficit (−8 vs. −6 vs. −12) and were more uniformly hypocoagulable on admission by PT, PTT, and TEG values; all p <0.001. HF patients also received more red blood cells, plasma, and platelets (at 3, 6, and 24 hours); had fewer ICU-, ventilator-, and hospital-free days; and had higher 24-hour and 30-day mortality. There were no differences in complications between the three phenotypes. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that HF on admission was associated with a threefold higher mortality (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.57–5.95, p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Previous data have shown that both the SD and HF phenotypes are associated with increased mortality and complications in the general trauma population. However, in a large cohort of bleeding patients, HF was confirmed to be a much more lethal and resource-intense phenotype. These data suggest that further research into the understanding of SD and HF is warranted to improve outcomes in this patient population.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE

Prognostic, level II.

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