A newly proposed surveillance definition for ventilator-associated conditions among neonatal and pediatric patients has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality among ventilated patients in cardiac ICU, neonatal ICU, and PICU. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with pediatric ventilator-associated conditions.Design:
Six U.S. hospitalsPatients:
Children less than or equal to 18 years old ventilated for greater than or equal to 1 day.Interventions:
None.Measurements and Main Results:
We identified children with pediatric ventilator-associated conditions and matched them to children without ventilator-associated conditions. Medical records were reviewed for comorbidities and acute care factors. We used bivariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models to identify factors associated with ventilator-associated conditions. We studied 192 pairs of ventilator-associated conditions cases and matched controls (113 in the PICU and cardiac ICU combined; 79 in the neonatal ICU). In the PICU/cardiac ICU, potential risk factors for ventilator-associated conditions included neuromuscular blockade (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.08–4.87), positive fluid balance (highest quartile compared with the lowest, odds ratio, 7.76; 95% CI, 2.10–28.6), and blood product use (odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.70–3.28). Weaning from sedation (i.e., decreasing sedation) or interruption of sedation may be protective (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18–1.11). In the neonatal ICU, potential risk factors included blood product use (odds ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.02–8.78), neuromuscular blockade use (odds ratio, 3.96; 95% CI, 0.93–16.9), and recent surgical procedures (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 0.77–6.28). Weaning or interrupting sedation was protective (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01–0.79).Conclusions:
In mechanically ventilated neonates and children, we identified several possible risk factors associated with ventilator-associated conditions. Next steps include studying propensity-matched cohorts and prospectively testing whether changes in sedation management, transfusion thresholds, and fluid management can decrease pediatric ventilator-associated conditions rates and improve patient outcomes.