Dietary sodium intake among US adults with hypertension, 1999–2012
Excess sodium consumption has strong links with hypertension and cardiovascular disease with Food and Drug Association calling to limit sodium intake. However, little is known regarding the trends of sodium intake among hypertensive patients in the United States.Methods:
Data from The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2012) were used to identify adults older than 20 years with self-reported hypertension. Sodium intake was measured through 24-h dietary recall. Linear regression was used to assess the time trends of sodium intake.Results:
Between the years of 1999 and 2012, sodium consumption increased 14.2% among all adults with hypertension (P = 0.012). The increase was seen in both sexes (by 13.3%, P = 0.023 for male, and by 12.1%, P = 0.015 for female). A significant increase was seen in the amount of sodium consumption among Hispanic (by 26.2%, P = 0.021) and African-American (by 20%, P = 0.031) participants, but not among non-Hispanic whites (by 2%, P = 0.096) during the study period. Participants with higher level of education (3487 ± 1678 vs. 3230 ± 1785 mg, P = 0.002) and household income (3527 ± 1770 vs. 3301 ± 1726 mg, P = 0.009) were found to consume more sodium, which remained significant after adjustment for age.Conclusion:
Sodium intake has increased over the last two decades among individuals with hypertension. The increase was especially marked for Hispanics and African-Americans. Improved population-based interventions, including more effective strategies and aggressive approaches to reduce the sodium consumption among hypertensive adults, are needed.