Glutamate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative damage and mRNA expression changes of tight junction and defensin proteins, inflammatory and apoptosis response signaling molecules in the intestine of fish
The present study explored the possible preventive effects of dietary glutamate (Glu) on LPS-induced oxidative damage, mRNA expression changes of tight junction (TJ) and defensin proteins, inflammatory and apoptosis response signaling molecules in fish intestine. Young Jian carp were fed five diets supplemental graded levels of Glu (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 g kg−1 diet) for 63 days. The results indicated that Glu supplementation depressed LPS induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and severe oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) in fish intestine, which was partially due to the increased glutathione (GSH) content and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) (P < 0.05). Further investigations indicated that Glu supplementation caused elevation of those antioxidant enzyme activities are related to the up-regulation of corresponding antioxidant enzymes and the related signaling factor Nrf2 mRNA levels (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, Glu pre-treatment significantly suppressed LPS-induced COX-2 and inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression and down-regulated NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38 transcription. Furthermore, pre-treatment with Glu prevented LPS induced apoptosis-related gene expression (caspase 3 and 9, P < 0.05). Lastly, Glu supplementation also attenuated LPS induced intestinal barrier function-related gene TJ proteins (ZO-1, occludin1, claudin2, 3, and 7), β-defensin1 and 3 mRNA expressions decreasing (P < 0.05). Taken together, the present results showed Glu could attenuate LPS induced the oxidative damage by Nrf2 signal pathway and depress LPS induced inflammation response (cytokines, COX-2, NF-κB p65, and MAPK p38), apoptosis (caspase3 and 9), and barrier function (ZO-1, occludin1, claudin2, 3 and 7, and β-defensin 1 and 3)-related gene expression changes of fish intestine.