Genome stability of programmed stem cell products
Inherited and acquired genomic abnormalities are known to cause genetic diseases and contribute to cancer formation. Recent studies demonstrated a substantial mutational load in mouse and human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs and iPSCs). Single nucleotide variants, copy number variations, and larger chromosomal abnormalities may influence the differentiation capacity of pluripotent stem cells and the functionality of their derivatives in disease modeling and drug screening, and are considered a serious risk for cellular therapies based on ESC or iPSC derivatives. This review discusses the types and origins of different genetic abnormalities in pluripotent stem cells, methods for their detection, and the mechanisms of development and enrichment during reprogramming and culture expansion.