Tilapia adropin: the localization and regulation of growth hormone gene expression in pituitary cells
The peptide hormone adropin, encoded by the energy homeostasis-associated (Enho) gene, plays a role in energy homeostasis and the control of vascular function. The aim of this study was to examine the role of adropin in growth hormone (GH) gene expression at the pituitary level in tilapia. As a first step, the antiserum for the tilapia adropin was produced, and its specificity was confirmed by antiserum preabsorption and immunohistochemical staining in the tilapia pituitary. Adropin could be detected immunocytochemically in the proximal pars distalis (PPD) of the tilapia pituitary. In primary cultures of tilapia pituitary cells, tilapia adropin was effective in increasing GH mRNA levels. However, removal of endogenous adropin by immunoneutralization using adropin antiserum inhibited GH gene expression. In parallel experiments, pituitary cells co-treated with ovine pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 38 (oPACAP38) and adropin showed a similar increase level compared to those treated with oPACAP38 alone, whereas insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) not only had an inhibitory effect on basal GH mRNA levels, but also could abolish adropin stimulation of GH gene expression. In pituitary cells pretreated with actinomycin D, the half-life of GH mRNA was enhanced by adropin. Taken together, these findings suggest that adropin may serve as a novel local stimulator for GH gene expression in tilapia pituitary.