Role of Microalbuminuria in Predicting Cardiovascular Mortality in Individuals With Subclinical Hypothyroidism☆,☆☆
Studies suggest that subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is related to cardiovascular mortality (CVM). We explored the role of microalbuminuria (MIA) as a predictor of long-term CVM in population with and without SCH with normal kidney function.Materials and Methods:
We examined the National Health and Nutrition Education Survey - III database (n = 6,812). Individuals younger than 40 years, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels ≥20 and ≤0.35 mIU/L, estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio of >250 mg/g in men and >355 mg/g in women were excluded. SCH was defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone levels between 5 and 19.99 mIU/L and serum T4 levels between 5 and 12 μg/dL. MIA was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 17-250 mg/g in men and 25-355 mg/g in women. Patients were categorized into the following 4 groups: (1) no SCH or MIA, (2) MIA, but no SCH, (3) SCH, but no MIA and (4) both SCH and MIA.Results:
Prevalence of MIA in the subclinical hypothyroid cohort was 21% compared to 16.4% in those without SCH (P = 0.03). SCH was a significant independent predictor of MIA (n = 6,812), after adjusting for traditional risk factors (unadjusted odds ratio = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.24-2.48; P = 0.002 and adjusted odds ratio = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.2-2.79; P = 0.006). MIA was a significant independent predictor of long-term all-cause (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.24-2.33) and CVM (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.07-2.76) in subclinical hypothyroid individuals.Conclusions:
In a cohort of subclinical hypothyroid individuals, the presence of MIA predicts increased risk of CVM as compared to nonmicroalbuminurics with SCH. Further randomized trials are needed to assess the benefits of treating microalbuminuric subclinical hypothyroid individuals and impact on CVM.