Ethyl-acetate fraction ofTrichilia catiguarestores long-term retrograde memory and reduces oxidative stress and inflammation after global cerebral ischemia in rats
We originally reported that an ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of Trichilia catigua prevented the impairment of water maze learning and hippocampal neurodegeneration after transient global cerebral (TGCI) in mice. We extended that previous study by evaluating whether T. catigua (i) prevents the loss of long-term retrograde memory assessed in the aversive radial maze (AvRM), (ii) confers hippocampal and cortical neuroprotection, and (iii) mitigates oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in rats that are subjected to the four vessel occlusion (4-VO) model of TGCI. In the first experiment, naive rats were trained in the AvRM and then subjected to TGCI. The EAF was administered orally 30 min before and 1 h after TGCI, and administration continued once per day for 7 days post-ischemia. In the second experiment, the EAF was administered 30 min before and 1 h after TGCI, and protein carbonylation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed 24 h and 5 days later, respectively. Retrograde memory performance was assessed 8, 15, and 21 days post-ischemia. Ischemia caused persistent retrograde amnesia, and this effect was prevented by T. catigua. This memory protection (or preservation) persisted even after the treatment was discontinued, despite the absence of histological neuroprotection. Protein carbonyl group content and MPO activity increased around 43% and 100%, respectively, after TGCI, which were abolished by the EAF of T. catigua. The administration of EAF did not coincide with the days of memory testing. The data indicate that antioxidant and/or antiinflammatory actions in the early phase of ischemia/reperfusion contribute to the long-term antiamnesic effect of T. catigua.