Over-the-top ACL Reconstruction Plus Extra-articular Lateral Tenodesis With Hamstring Tendon Grafts: Prospective Evaluation With 20-Year Minimum Follow-up

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Abstract

Background:

There are few published studies with very long-term follow-up of combined intra- and extra-articular anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

Purpose:

To analyze clinical and radiographic outcomes of over-the-top ACL reconstruction plus extra-articular lateral tenodesis with autologous hamstrings at minimum 20-year follow-up.

Study Design:

Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods:

Of 60 originally eligible patients who underwent over-the-top ACL reconstruction with double-stranded hamstring tendon (leaving intact graft tibial insertions) and extra-articular lateral plasty (performed with the remnant part of tendons), 52 were prospectively evaluated at a minimum 20-year follow-up (mean follow-up, 24 years; 41 men, 11 women; mean age at time of surgery, 25.5 ± 7.6 years). Twenty-nine patients were available for prospective evaluations: clinical (Lysholm, Tegner, and objective International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC]), instrumented (KT-2000), and radiographic (standard, long-standing, and Merchant views). Subjective KOOS (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) and objective inertial sensor pivot-shift analysis (KiRA) were carried out at final follow-up. Twenty-three patients were investigated by phone interview for subjective Tegner score and documented complications, rerupture, or revision surgery.

Results:

At final follow-up, mean Lysholm score was 85.7 ± 14.6; median Tegner score, 4 (range, 3-5); sport activity resumption, 86.2%; and objective IKDC score, good or excellent in 86% of patients (31%, A; 55%, B). Only 3 of 26 patients (12%) had >5-mm manual maximum KT-2000 side-to-side difference. KiRA system documented positive pivot-shift (>0.9-m/s2 tibial acceleration side-to-side difference) in these 3 of 26 patients (12%). Statistically significant changes were as follows: decrease in Tegner score from 7 (range, 6-8) at 5-year follow-up to 4 (range, 3-5) at 10 years (P < .0001) and decrease in Lysholm score from 96.1 ± 7.3 at 10-year follow-up to 85.7 ± 14.6 at 20 years (P = .0003). Radiographic evaluation demonstrated significant difference of medial joint space between injured and healthy knees in patients with concomitant medial meniscectomy (n = 8, 3.2 ± 0.6 vs 5.0 ± 1.8 mm, P = .0114). No significant differences were reported regarding lateral or patellofemoral joint space. One patient (2%) experienced rerupture, with 3 of 52 (5.8%) having a contralateral ACL injury (excluded from KT-2000 and radiographic evaluations). Overall, 4 of 29 clinical failures (objective IKDC, KT-2000) and 1 rerupture among 52 patients were registered at final follow-up.

Conclusion:

Studied surgical technique demonstrated good results in laxity control at 20-year minimum follow-up. The lateral extra-articular plasty associated with ACL reconstruction did not generate lateral knee or patellofemoral osteoarthritis. The factor increasing osteoarthritis was meniscectomy.

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