Use of Synchrotron Radiation to Accurately Assess Cross-Sectional Area Reduction of the Aortic Branch Ostia Caused by Suprarenal Stent Wires
Purpose: To compare in vivo the use of synchrotron radiation to computed tomography angiography (CTA) for the measurement of cross-sectional area (CSA) reduction of the aortic branch ostia caused by suprarenal stent-graft wires. Methods: This study was performed with a Zenith stent-graft placed in a phantom of the human aorta to simulate treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Synchrotron radiation scans were performed using beam energies between 40 and 100 keV and spatial resolution of 19.88 μm per pixel. CSA reduction of the aortic branch ostia by suprarenal stent wires was calculated based on these exposure factors and compared with measurements from CTA images acquired on a 64-row scanner with slice thicknesses of 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm. Results: Images acquired with synchrotron radiation showed <10% of the CSA occupied by stent wires when a single wire crossed a renal artery ostium and <20% for 2 wires crossing a renovisceral branch ostium. The corresponding areas ranged from 24% to 25% for a single wire and from 40% to 48% for double wires crossing the branch ostia when measured on CT images. The stent wire was accurately assessed on synchrotron radiation with a diameter between 0.38±0.01 and 0.53±0.03 mm, which is close to the actual size of 0.47±0.01 mm. The wire diameter measured on CT images was greatly overestimated (1.15±0.01 to 1.57±0.02 mm). Conclusion: CTA has inferior spatial resolution that hinders accurate assessment of CSA reduction. This experiment demonstrated the superiority of synchrotron radiation over CTA for more accurate assessment of aortic stent wires and CSA reduction of the aortic branch ostia.