Two faces of Hippo: activate or suppress the Hippo pathway in cancer
The Hippo pathway has generated considerable interest in recent years because of its involvement in several key hallmarks of cancer progression and metastasis. Research on the Hippo signaling pathway in cancer has been used to determine the activity of yes-associated protein (YAP) in tumorigenesis and disease progression. Previous studies have shown that the Hippo pathway can be used as a target to inhibit YAP activity and is a viable treatment for cancer. However, more studies are required to further advance our understanding of the Hippo signaling pathway in cancer. It has been shown that knockout of serine/threonine-kinases LATS1/2 in the Hippo pathway suppresses cancer immunity in mice. In addition, suppression of the oncogene YAP could contribute toward cancer immune therapy. Therefore, regulation of Hippo signaling can be an attractive alternative strategy for cancer treatment. This review will provide a summary of currently known compounds that activate or suppress the Hippo pathway.