Perfluorochemicals (PFCs) constitute one class of artificial oxygen carriers that are being produced completely synthetically. One formulation that has been evaluated extensively in clinical trials is a 60% w/v perflubron-based emulsion. Efficacy and safety of this perflubron emulsion was evaluated in a Phase 2 and a large prospective randomized Phase 3 multicenter European study, which collectively included a total of 639 patients. Perflubron emulsion was highly successful in improving organ function, reversing physiologic transfusion triggers and in reducing the need for allogeneic blood transfusions. There were no major safety issues.