The Morphological Grading and Comparison of Sutural Patency Among Cranial Sutures in Dry Human Skulls

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Abstract

Objective:

To investigate the degree of fusion (patency) among cranial sutures in human dry skulls in the Anatolia.

Methods:

One-hundred fifty-eight human dry skulls that were accepted as adults according to the teeth eruption were macroscopically examined and photographed with Canon 400B (55 mm objective). The grades of fusion of coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid were quantitatively analyzed by using the modified grading scale. According to the extent of patency, the sutures were graded as grade-0 (open), grade-1 (fused but not obliterated), grade-2 (50%< obliterated), grade-3 (50% > obliterated), and grade-4 (100% obliterated). The authors determined and compared the rate for each grade of sutural patency on coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid sutures.

Results:

The cranial sutures of 4 cranii (4/158; 2.53%) had grade-4 fusion, whereas there were no any cranii with sutures of grade-0 fusion. The number of each grade of fusion among cranial sutures of 158 skulls, in descending order, was as follows: 171 (grade-3), 145 (grade-1), 133 (grade-2), and 25 (grade-4). The grade-4 fusion was significantly less observed than the others. The grade-1 and grade-4 fusion of lambdoid sutures were established as the most (66/41.8%) and least (5/3.2%) common fusions among cranial sutures, respectively. The frequencies of each grade of fusion for each cranial suture were determined in a descending order: coronal (grade-3 > 2 > 1 > 4), sagittal (grade-3 > 2 > 1 > 4), and lambdoid sutures (grade-1 > 3 > 2 > 4). The frequency of grade-1 fusion of lambdoid suture (66/41.8%) was significantly different when compared with coronal (39/24.7%) and sagittal sutures (40/25.3%), respectively.

Conclusion:

The grades of fusion (or sutural patency) vary among cranial sutures.

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