Renal Metabolic Programming Is Linked to the Dynamic Regulation of a Leptin-Klf15 Axis and Akt/AMPKαSignaling in Male Offspring of Obese Dams
Childhood obesity is associated with renal diseases. Maternal obesity is a risk factor linked to increased adipocytokines and metabolic disorders in the offspring. Therefore, we studied the impact of maternal obesity on renal-intrinsic insulin and adipocytokine signaling and on renal function and structure. To induce maternal obesity, female mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a standard diet (SD; control group) prior to mating, during gestation, and throughout lactation. A third group of dams was fed HFD only during lactation (HFD-Lac). After weaning at postnatal day (P)21, offspring of all groups received SD. Clinically, HFD offspring were overweight and insulin resistant at P21. Although no metabolic changes were detected at P70, renal sodium excretion was reduced by 40%, and renal matrix deposition increased in the HFD group. Mechanistically, two stages were differentiated. In the early stage (P21), compared with the control group, HFD showed threefold increased white adipose tissue, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Renal leptin/Stat3-signaling was activated. In contrast, the Akt/ AMPKα cascade and Krüppel-like factor 15 expression were decreased. In the late stage (P70), although no metabolic differences were detected in HFD when compared with the control group, leptin/Stat3-signaling was reduced, and Akt/AMPKα was activated in the kidneys. This effect was linked to an increase of proliferative (cyclinD1/D2) and profibrotic (ctgf/collagen IIIα1) markers, similar to leptin-deficient mice. HFD-Lac mice exhibited metabolic changes at P21 similar to HFD, but no other persistent changes. This study shows a link between maternal obesity and metabolic programming of renal structure and function and intrinsic-renal Stat3/Akt/AMPKα signaling in the offspring.