Adipokines and Their Receptors Are Widely Expressed and Distinctly Regulated by the Metabolic Environment in the Prostate of Male Mice: Direct Role Under Normal and Tumoral Conditions
Adipose tissue-derived adipokines (i.e., leptin/adiponectin/resistin) play important roles in the regulation of several pathophysiologic processes through the activation of specific receptors. However, although adipokines and their receptors are widely distributed in many tissues and exhibit a clear modulation according to particular metabolic conditions (e.g., obesity and/or fasting), their expression, regulation, and putative action on normal prostate glands (PGs; a hormone-dependent organ tightly regulated by the endocrine-metabolic milieu) are still to be defined. Different in vivo/in vitro models were used to comprehensively characterize the expression pattern and actions of different adipokine systems (i.e., leptin/adiponectin/resistin/receptors) in mouse PGs. Adiponectin, resistin, and adiponectin receptors (1 and 2) and leptin receptor are coexpressed at different levels in PG cells, wherein they are finely regulated under fasting and/or obesity conditions. Furthermore, treatment with different adipokines exerted both homologous and heterologous regulation of specific adipokines/receptor-synthesis and altered the expression of key proliferation and oncogenesis markers (i.e., Ki67/c-Myc/p53) in mouse PG cell cultures, wherein some of these actions might be elicited through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. Moreover, treatment with leptin, adiponectin, and resistin differentially regulated key functional parameters [i.e., proliferation and migration capacity and/or prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion] in human normal and/or tumoral prostate cell lines. Altogether, our data show that various adipokine and receptor systems are differentially expressed in normal PG cells; that their expression is under a complex ligand- and receptor-selective regulation under extreme metabolic conditions; and that they mediate distinctive and common direct actions in normal and tumoral PG cells (i.e., homologous and heterologous regulation of ligand and receptor synthesis, ERK signaling activation, modulation of proliferation markers, proliferation and migration capacity, and PSA secretion), suggesting a relevant role of these systems in the regulation of PG pathophysiology.