The Role of Episodic Postprandial Peptides in Exercise-Induced Compensatory Eating

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Abstract

Context:

Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control. Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial, peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and in response to high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) and low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC) meals.

Methods:

Of the 32 overweight/obese individuals, 16 completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 16 nonexercising control subjects were matched for age and body mass index. Exercisers were classified as responders or nonresponders depending on net energy balance from observed compared with expected body composition changes from measured energy expenditure. Plasma samples were collected before and after meals to compare profiles of total and acylated ghrelin, insulin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and total peptide YY (PYY) between HFLC and LFHC meals, pre- and postexercise, and between groups.

Results:

No differences between pre- and postintervention peptide release. Responders had greater suppression of acylated ghrelin (P < 0.05) than nonresponders, as well as higher postprandial levels of GLP-1 (P < 0.001) and total PYY (P < 0.001) compared with nonresponders and control subjects.

Conclusion:

No impact on postprandial peptide release was found after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise. Responders to exercise-induced weight loss showed greater suppression of acylated ghrelin and greater release of GLP-1 and total PYY at baseline. Therefore, episodic postprandial peptide profiles appear to form part of the pre-existing physiology of exercise responders and suggest differences in satiety potential may underlie exercise-induced compensatory eating.

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