Nutrient composition and retention in whole turkeys with and without added solution1
Whole turkeys sold in retail outlets are typically processed with added solutions to improve their taste and tenderness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient composition of whole turkeys with and without added solution, and to update the nutrient profile of turkey for the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Eleven pairs of turkeys with added solution were obtained from statistically representative retail outlets using a nationwide sampling plan developed for USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program; 4 pairs of turkeys without added solution were purchased from local food outlets. Turkeys were roasted to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C). Values of selected nutrients in light and dark meat, including skin, were determined by USDA approved laboratories using quality assurance protocols. Both raw and cooked turkeys, with and without added solution, were compared by one-way and 2-way factorial ANOVA. The results showed a significant interaction for fat (P < 0.0001) and zinc (P = 0.0070) between turkeys that were raw and cooked and those prepared with or without added solution. Fat was higher in raw turkeys with added solution compared to without added solution. Similarly, sodium, phosphorus, and calcium values were significantly higher in turkeys with added solution (P < 0.05) than in turkeys without added solution. Data from this study will be useful for developing strategies to address sodium-related health issues, nutrition monitoring, consumption surveys, and policy development.