Assessment of fructose overload in the metabolic profile and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the kidney of senescent female rats
The aging process is a complex phenomenon that leads the body to several changes, affecting its integrity and resulting in chronic pathologies, which compromises health and quality of life of elderly people. Animals supplemented with fructose have been used as an experimental model for induction of insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects and the levels of oxidative/nitrosative stress in the kidney of senescent rats with a high fructose intake. The animals were allocated into 4 groups: young control (Y), aged control (A), young fructose (YF) and aged fructose (AF). Groups Y and A received water and groups YF and AF received fructose (100 g/L) in the water, both ad libitum. After 12 weeks of high fructose intake, the animals were sacrificed to collect their kidneys, blood and the thoracic aorta. The results are presented as mean ± SE, analyzed by the One-Way ANOVA test with Newman-Keuls post-test; significant at p < 0.05. The fructose overload caused metabolic dysfunctions and insulin resistance, confirming the efficacy of the chosen model. In this study, we observed a body weight gain in the studied groups (except in the elderly fructose group), and an increase in general caloric intake, diuresis and adipose tissue; insulin resistance, increased fasting glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in the fructose groups. We also found a loss of renal function, increased oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammation, and a reduction of antioxidants and a lower vasodepressor response in the studied groups, especially those who consumed fructose. In summary, our data showed that aging or high fructose intake contributed to the increase of oxidative/nitrosative stress in animals, demonstrating that at the dose and the period of fructose treatment utilized in this study, fructose was not able to aggravate several aspects which were already altered by aging. We believe that the high fructose intake simulates most of the effects of aging, and this understanding would be useful to prevent or minimize many of the alterations caused by this condition.