Association between the time perspective and type of involvement in bullying among adolescents: A cross-sectional study in Japan

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Abstract

Aim

To examine the association between the types of involvement in bullying and the time perspective among Japanese adolescents.

Methods

A questionnaire was conducted among Japanese junior high school students at eight public schools that were located in two cities in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Shirai's Experiential Time Perspective Scale was used, which comprises four subscales: goal-directedness, hopefulness, self-fulfillment, and acceptance of the past. An analysis of covariance was applied, with the time-perspective subscales as the objective variable, type of involvement in bullying as a fixed factor, and grade, family structure, and economic status as the covariates.

Results

The analysis sample included 2630 adolescents (valid response rate: 88.6%). The bullying rate of the boys was 10.8% and 4.1% for the girls, for the male victims it was 10.1% and 14.5% for the female victims, and for both the bully and the victim, it was 8.5% and 5.4%, respectively. The students who were not involved in bullying had the highest scores of hopefulness, self-fulfillment, and acceptance of the past. For both sexes, bullying was significantly associated with hopefulness, self-fulfillment, and acceptance of the past. Goal-directedness was not associated with the type of involvement in bullying.

Conclusions

The victims of bullying had low time perspectives of hopefulness, self-fulfillment, and acceptance of the past. Providing support that increases hopefulness, self-fulfillment, and acceptance of the past might help to prevent pessimistic decision-making, such as that seen in cases of suicide.

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