Epithelial–mesenchymal transition(EMT) is the main reason for peritoneal fibrosis and the mechanism underlying peritoneal EMT were extensively studied in recent years. Recent researches showed that miRNAs were so important in the development of organ EMT and fibrosis, the role of microRNAs on peritoneal dialysis have also been studied. In the current study, we investigated microRNA-23(miR-23) expression in high glucose(HG) induced EMT in human mesotheial peritoneal cells(HPMCs). We found that HG promoted EMT, which was characterized by the upregulation of mesenchymal markers α-SMA and FN and downregulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin. The expression miR-23 showed a significant upregulation when treated with HG. Enhanced expression of miR-23 could aggravate HG induced EMT by targeting VDR, inhibition of miR-23 in HPMCs could reverse HG induced EMT by targeting VDR. Furthermore, VDRshRNA exacerbated the EMT process and reversed miR-23 inhibitor-attenuated EMT process in HPMCs. These data manifested that miR-23 played a key role in HG-induced EMT of HPMCs by targeting VDR.