Clinical Outcomes of the Upper Urinary Tract after Ureteral Clipping for Treatment of Low Functioning or Nonfunctioning Renal Moieties
A growing body of evidence suggests that it is safe to ligate the ureter of poorly functioning renal moieties during renal transplantation. We present clinical outcomes and data on hydronephrosis progression in pediatric cases associated with ectopic ureters and obstructive ureteroceles.Materials and Methods:
We prospectively collected data for 35 consecutive patients (23 females and 12 males) who underwent ureteral clipping between February 2011 and August 2016. Patients were divided into 4 groups consisting of 1) duplex system with ectopic ureter (45.7%), 2) duplex system with a large ureterocele (11.4%), 3) other duplex system (8.6%) and 4) single system kidneys (34.3%). Patients were followed for clinical outcomes and hydronephrosis trends. Comparisons included preoperative and postoperative anteroposterior diameter, maximal ureteral diameter and ureterocele size.Results:
Median age at surgery was 59 months (IQR 11 to 120, range 5 to 216). Median ± SD operative time was 108.9 ± 31.1 minutes (range 20 to 180) and median length of stay was 7.5 hours (IQR 6 to 19, range 5 to 336). Immediate resolution of urinary incontinence was observed in all 16 ectopic ureter cases. After a median ± SD followup of 20.8 ± 13.8 months (IQR 8.5 to 30, range 6 to 50) 97.2% of the patients remained asymptomatic. No significant differences were observed between initial and last anteroposterior diameter measurements except in group 1 (p = 0.001). All ureteroceles demonstrated a significant decrease in median ± SD size after clipping (from 2.7 ± 0.41 to 0.53 ± 0.92 cm, p = 0.003). Pyonephrosis developed in 1 patient, who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy.Conclusions:
Ureteral clipping appears to be a reasonable, safe and effective option for pediatric patients in the reported settings, with the potential to be simpler and quicker than extirpative or reconstructive procedures.