p,p′-Methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide-loaded polymeric nanocapsules as a novel approach to inflammatory pain treatment: Behavioral, biochemistry and molecular evidence
The current study investigated the effect of organoselenium compound p,p′-methoxyl-diphenyl diselenide [(OMePhSe)2], free or incorporated into nanocapsules, on behavioral, biochemical and molecular alterations in an inflammatory pain model induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Male Swiss mice received an intraplantar injection of CFA in the hindpaw and 24 h later they were treated via the intragastric route with a single (OMePhSe)2 administration, in its free form (dissolved in canola oil) or (OMePhSe)2 NC. The anti-hypernociceptive time- and dose-response curves were carried out using the von Frey hair test. Biochemical and histological parameters were determined in samples of injected paws and those of cerebral contralateral cortex were collected to determine immuno content of inflammatory proteins. Both (OMePhSe)2 forms reduced the hypernociception induced by CFA as well as attenuated the altered parameters of the inflammatory process in the paw (paw edema, myeloperoxidase and histological). However, the (OMePhSe)2 NC had a more prolonged anti-hypernociceptive action (7 h) at a lower dose (10 mg/kg) and superior effects on the paw alterations than the free compound form (4 h and 25 mg/kg). Furthermore, independent of the (OMePhSe)2 form, its administration decreased the MAPKs pathway activation (JNK;ERK1,2; p38) as well as iNOS, COX-2, Nf-κB and IL-1β protein contents in the cerebral contralateral cortex that were increased by paw CFA injection. Therefore, (OMePhSe)2 NC had superior anti-inflammatory action, which possibly occurs by the inflammatory protein content modulation and also attenuates paw biochemical and histological inflammatory alterations induced by CFA injection.