Outcomes after lung transplant lag behind those of other solid-organ transplants. A better understanding of the pathways that contribute to rejection and tolerance after lung transplant will be required to develop new therapeutic strategies that take into account the unique immunological features of lungs. Mechanistic immunological investigations in an orthotopic transplant model in the mouse have shed new light on immune responses after lung transplant. Here, we highlight that interactions between immune cells within pulmonary grafts shape their fate. These observations set lungs apart from other organs and help provide the conceptual framework for the development of lung-specific immunosuppression.