Uterine Mesenchymal Tumors: Hereditary Aspects

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The topic of hereditary gynecologic malignancies readily evokes associations between Lynch syndrome and endometrial adenocarcinoma, or between BRCA mutations and tubo-ovarian serous carcinoma, but other familial associations are less well-known. Two hereditary syndromes are known to be related to uterine mesenchymal tumors: hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome and the tuberous sclerosis complex. In the following review, we describe the current literature on these syndromes, summarizing their clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic data. It is possible that the surgical pathologic diagnosis is the first indication of a familial syndrome, thus emphasizing the importance of a pathologist’s familiarity with these potentially suggestive lesions.

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