Second Neoplasms in Children Following a Treatment for Acute Leukemia and/or Lymphoma: 29 Years of Experience in a Single Institution in Argentina

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Childhood acute leukemias (AL) and lymphomas achieve good survival rates. However, second neoplasms (SN) are a devastating event.


From August 1987 to December 2016, 34 of 3321 (1%) patients with diagnosis of AL or lymphoma developed SN. SN were AL (n=16), CNS tumors (n=5), endocrinal tumors (n=3), lymphomas (n=2), schwannoma (n=2) assorted sarcomas (n=4), retinal melanoma (n=1), and Vanek tumor (n=1). Median latency was 51 (range, 10 to 110) months for hematological malignancies and 119 (range, 25 to 236) months for solid tumors (P=0.001).


A total of 33 patients with SN were treated taking into account cumulative doses of anthracyclines and radiotherapy. Twenty-three (67.6%) patients achieved complete remission (CR), 5 died early during therapy and 5 were refractory or partial responders. Six patients presented relapses of the SN and 1 died in CR. Seventeen patients remain alive in CR, with a median follow-up of 110 (range, 4 to 276) months.


(1) The latency period was significantly longer for patients developing solid tumors than for those developing AL. (2) AL was the most frequent SN. (3) Our results strongly encourage giving standard therapy to SN, considering cumulative doses of previous treatment, since similar probabilities of surviving as “de novo” counterparts can be achieved.

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