Myelosuppression, Bone Disease, and Acute Renal Failure: Evidence-based recommendations for oncologic emergencies
Oncologic emergencies associated with multiple myeloma include myelosuppression (anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia), bone-related emergencies, and acute renal failure.OBJECTIVES:
This article reviews the pathophysiology of these multiple myeloma-associated oncology emergencies and provides a framework for assessment and effective intervention.METHODS:
A comprehensive review of the levels of evidence, focusing on assessment, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatment, ongoing monitoring, and patient education, are presented to support the plan of care for at-risk patients.FINDINGS:
Attention to signs and symptoms is the foundation for preventing these emergencies or managing additional escalation of symptoms.