Tolerance of high and low amounts of PLGA microspheres loaded with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist in retinal target site

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Abstract

Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) contributes to retinal/choroidal homeostasis. Excess MR activation has been shown to be involved in pathogenesis of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Systemic administration of MR antagonist (MRA) reduces subretinal fluid and choroidal vasodilation, and improves the visual acuity in CSCR patients. To achieve long term beneficial effects in the eye while avoiding systemic side-effects, we propose the use of biodegradable spironolactone-loaded poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres (MSs). In this work we have evaluated the ocular tolerance of MSs containing spironolactone in rat' eyes. As previous step, we have also studied the tolerance of the commercial solution of canrenoate salt, active metabolite of spironolactone. PLGA MSs allowed in vitro sustained release of spironolactone for 30 days. Rat eyes injected with high intravitreous concentration of PLGA MSs (10 mg/mL) unloaded and loaded with spironolactone maintained intact retinal lamination at 1 month. However enhanced glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining and activated microglia/macrophages witness retinal stress were observed. ERG also showed impaired photoreceptor function. Intravitreous PLGA MSs concentration of 2 mg/mL unloaded and loaded with spironolactone resulted well tolerated. We observed reduced microglial/macrophage activation in rat retina compared to high concentration of MSs with normal retinal function according to ERG. Spironolactone released from low concentration of MSs was active in the rat retina. Low concentration of spironolactone-loaded PLGA MSs could be a safe therapeutic choice for chorioretinal disorders in which illicit MR activation could be pathogenic.

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