Predictors of visual outcome and the role of early vitrectomy in streptococcal endophthalmitis

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Abstract

Importance:

Streptococcal endophthalmitis has devastating sequelae. This study aims to identify factors which may be targeted to optimize patient outcomes.

Background:

This study investigated characteristics influencing visual outcomes and the role of early vitrectomy.

Design:

Retrospective observational case series of consecutive patients was conducted.

Participants:

All patients with a culture-positive diagnosis of streptococcal endophthalmitis treated at a tertiary ophthalmology referral centre between July 1997 and February 2012 were included.

Methods:

Patient records were reviewed and data collected on their presentation, examination, microbiology results, procedures and final outcome.

Main Outcome Measures:

Visual acuity (VA) and enucleation/evisceration were measured.

Results:

Of the 101 patients, 35.6% presented with a VA of hand movements and 42.6% with light perception (LP). Final VA was poor (6/60 or worse) in 77.6% and 24.7% were enucleated/eviscerated. Presenting VA of LP or worse (P = 0.008), no view of fundus (P = 0.001), large number of organisms (P < 0.001), recognition of Streptococcus on Gram stain (P = 0.010), heavy growth on culture (P < 0.001) and more intravitreal injections (P = 0.038) were significantly associated with poor visual outcome (6/60 or worse). Presenting VA of LP or worse (P = 0.042) and non-viridans Streptococcus species (P = 0.002) were significantly associated with enucleation/evisceration. Fifteen patients (14.9%) had early vitrectomy within 48 h which was not associated with poor final VA or removal of the eye (P = 1.000).

Conclusions and Relevance:

Early vitrectomy did not influence visual outcome in this cohort. Microbiology results were useful in predicting poor outcomes, and may allow clinicians to make early treatment decisions and provide prognostic information for patients.

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