Can Dexmedetomidine Influence Recovery Profiles from General Anesthesia in Nasal Surgery?

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Abstract

Objectives

Dexmedetomidine has sympatholytic, sedative, anesthetic, and analgesic effects, as well as vasoconstrictive effects, which may help prevent hypotension under general anesthesia. This meta-analysis aimed to perform a systematic review of the literature and investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on perioperative morbidity following nasal surgery and its adverse effects.

Data Sources

MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane database.

Review Methods

Two authors independently searched the databases from their inception to March 2017. Studies were selected that compared perioperative dexmedetomidine administration (dexmedetomidine groups) with a placebo or remifentanil (control groups) with regard to intraoperative morbidity, including surgical time, bleeding amount, hypotension, and bradycardia during operation, and postoperative morbidity, such as emergence agitation, nausea and vomiting, and sedation after operation.

Results

Surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, dose of inhaled anesthetic gas, dose of fentanyl, postoperative pain, and incidence of emergence agitation were significantly lower in the dexmedetomidine group versus the placebo group. In contrast, there were no significant differences in intraoperative hemodynamic stability and postoperative residual sedation and nausea and vomiting between groups. Additionally, compared with remifentanil (a currently widely used agent), dexmedetomidine was superior in view of postoperative pain and intraoperative blood pressure control.

Conclusion

This meta-analysis shows that the systemic administration of dexmedetomidine can decrease surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, and doses of intraoperative inhaled anesthetic gas and fentanyl as compared with placebo. It can also decrease postoperative pain and incidence of the emergence agitation. Due to the small number of studies, further clinical trials are needed to confirm these results.

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