Use of a Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor Does Not Inhibit Platelet Activation or Growth Factor Release From Platelet-Rich Plasma

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Abstract

Background:

It remains unestablished whether use of cyclooxygenase (COX)–2 inhibitors impairs platelet activation and anabolic growth factor release from platelets in platelet-rich plasma (PRP).

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a COX-2 inhibitor on platelet activation and anabolic growth factor release from canine PRP when using a clinically applicable PRP activator and to determine whether a 3-day washout would be sufficient to abrogate any COX-2 inhibitor-related impairment on platelet function.

Study Design:

Controlled laboratory study.

Methods:

Ten healthy dogs underwent blood collection and PRP preparation. Dogs were then administered a COX-2 inhibitor for 7 days, after which PRP preparation was repeated. The COX-2 inhibitor was continued for 4 more days and PRP preparation performed a third time, 3 days after discontinuation of the COX-2 inhibitor. Immediately after PRP preparation, the PRP was divided into 4 aliquots: 2 unactivated and 2 activated using human γ-thrombin (HGT). One activated and 1 unactivated sample were assessed using flow cytometry for platelet expression of CD62P and platelet-bound fibrinogen using the canine activated platelet-1 (CAP1) antibody. The 2 remaining samples were centrifuged and the supernatant assayed for transforming growth factor–β1 (TGF-β1), platelet-derived growth factor–BB (PDGF-BB), and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) concentrations. Differences in platelet activation and TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, and TXB2 concentrations over the 3 study weeks were evaluated using a 1-way repeated-measures ANOVA, and comparisons between activated and unactivated samples within a study week were assessed with paired t tests.

Results:

There were no statistically significant (P > .05) effects of the COX-2 inhibitor on percentage of platelets positive for CD62P or CAP1 or on concentrations of TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, or TXB2. All unactivated samples had low levels of activation or growth factor concentrations and significantly (P < .05) greater activation and growth factor concentrations in HGT-activated samples.

Conclusion:

This COX-2 inhibitor did not impair platelet activation, growth factor release, or TXB2 production in this canine PRP when using HGT as an activator. Studies are warranted to determine whether COX-2 inhibitors affect platelet activation and growth factor release from human PRPs.

Clinical Relevance:

These results suggest that there is no need to withhold a COX-2 inhibitor before PRP preparation, particularly if thrombin is going to be used to activate the PRP. This is clinically relevant information because many patients who are candidates for PRP therapy for treatment of musculoskeletal injury are also using COX-2 inhibitors.

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