Implications of Increased Weight Status for the Occurrence of Fall-Induced Intracranial Hemorrhage in Children Aged 4 Years or Younger

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Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between increased weight status (IWS), a weight for age/sex at greater than the 95th percentile, and fall-induced intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in children aged 4 years or younger.

Methods

In 7072 children aged 4 years or younger with head injury who visited a tertiary care hospital emergency department in Korea from 2013 through 2015, the presence of fall-induced ICH was reviewed. The association between IWS and ICH was investigated by multivariable logistic regression. We retrospectively validated the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network rule alone and in combination with IWS for predicting ICH.

Results

Of 7072 children, 547 (7.7%) underwent computed tomography, of whom 451 (6.4%) were enrolled. Of these, 41 (9.1%; estimated event rate, 0.6%) had ICHs, and 26 (5.8%) had IWS. Increased weight status was more common in the children with ICH (P = 0.023). The association between IWS and ICH remained significant after adjustment (odds ratio, 5.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49–18.46; P = 0.010). The validation of the rule in combination with IWS showed no significant increases in a sensitivity (92.7% [95% CI, 80.1%–98.5%] to 95.7% [95% CI, 83.5%–99.4%]) and negative predictive value (98.2% [95% CI, 94.7%–99.4%] to 98.8% [95% CI, 95.4%–99.8%]).

Conclusions

Increased weight status is associated with fall-induced ICH in children aged 4 years or younger. Information on weight status could be potentially helpful in predicting ICH in young children with fall-induced head injury.

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