Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease with high mortality. Because of the lack of effective medications to stop or reverse the progression of AAA, surgical operation has become the most predominant recommendation of treatment for patients. There are many potential mechanisms, including inflammation, smooth muscle cell apoptosis, extracellular matrix degradation, oxidative stress, and so on, involving in AAA pathogenesis. According to those mechanisms, some potential therapeutic drugs have been proposed and tested in animal models and even in clinical trials. This review focuses on recent advances in both pathogenic mechanisms and potential pharmacologic therapies of AAA.