Should the Risk of Invasive Cancer in Pregnancy and the Safety of Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure During the First 15 Weeks Change Our Practice?

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Abstract

Objective

The aim of this article was to describe the outcome of women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2 or 3 in pregnancy either observed or treated by loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) in the first 15 weeks of gestation.

Methods

Loop electrosurgical excision procedure during the first 15 gestational weeks compared with observation of CIN2/3. This is a retrospective analysis of a nonrandomized study at tertiary, academic, and referring centers in Israel. Ninety-three pregnant women diagnosed with CIN2/3 between 2006 and 2016 were included in this study. Fifty patients with CIN2/3 on cervical biopsy were conservatively followed-up, and 43 patients have undergone LEEP during the first 15 gestational weeks. Main outcome measures were ultimate diagnosis of invasive cancer or CIN, pregnancy outcome, and complications.

Results

In 5.4% of CIN2/3 during pregnancy, the final diagnosis was invasive cancer. The postpartum results of 50 women who were conservatively observed were as follows: 3 (6.0%) had cervical cancer and undergone radical hysterectomy, 33 (66.6%) had CIN2/3, and 14 (28%) had CIN1 or normal histology. The diagnoses of the 43 patients who have undergone LEEP were invasive cancer in 2 patients (4.6%) but did not undergo hysterectomy, CIN2/3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in 38 patients (88.4%), and 3 women (7%) had CIN1 or normal histology. None of them suffered severe bleeding. Thirty-seven women continued their pregnancy, 34 (91.9%) had term deliveries, 2 (5.4%) gave birth at 34 and 36 weeks, and 1 patient had missed abortion (2.7%).

Conclusions

The LEEP procedure during the first 15 weeks of pregnancy is safe. A total of 5.4% of the women with CIN2/3 during pregnancy were diagnosed with invasive cancer. It is time to reconsider the recommendations about CIN2/3 in early gestation.

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