Pediatric Orbital Floor Fractures: Clinical and Radiological Predictors of Tissue Entrapment and the Effect of Operative Timing on Ocular Outcomes

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Abstract

Orbital floor fractures can produce acute constitutional symptoms and poor ocular outcomes. This study aims to determine the clinical and radiological predictors of tissue entrapment in pediatric orbital floor fractures and to explore the effect of operative timing on ocular outcomes. The authors reviewed medical records from pediatric patients with orbital floor fractures from 2007 to 2015. One hundred fifty-two patients with 159 orbital floor fractures were included. One hundred twenty-two (80.3%) patients were male, and the mean age was 12.2 years. Twelve patients sustained orbital floor fractures with tissue entrapment. At presentation extraocular movement (EOM) restriction, diplopia, nausea, and vomiting were all associated with tissue entrapment (P < 0.001). Among patients with trapdoor fractures (determined by facial computed tomography), the presence of nausea and/or vomiting was predictive of tissue entrapment: positive predictive value 80%, negative predictive value 100%. For all the patients, regardless of fracture configuration, the presence of nausea and/or vomiting was valuable in ruling out tissue entrapment: sensitivity 83.3%, negative predictive value 98.1%. In tissue entrapment patients, poorer ocular outcomes (EOM restriction and diplopia) were associated with the length of operation (P = 0.007), but not the time interval to operation (P = 0.146). The authors conclude that nausea and vomiting are valuable predictors of tissues entrapment, particularly when EOM restriction and diplopia are equivocal. In the authors’ study, radiological findings were also predictive of entrapment, but inconsistent language in this area limits the external validity of these results. The authors’ study draws attention to the relationship between operation length and poorer ocular outcomes, suggesting that case severity/complexity and surgeon technique/experience may influence outcomes.

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