About 90% of insulinomas are benign and 5–15% are malignant. Benign insulinomas express the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R, which recognizes exendin-4 and low levels of the somatostatin receptor (SSTR, which recognizes octreotide), whereas malignant insulinomas overexpress SSTR and low levels of GLP-1R. Recently, Lys27(99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC)-exendin(9-39)/99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide was formulated to detect 100% of insulinomas. The aim of this study was to estimate the biokinetics and dosimetry of 99mTc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide in four healthy individuals.Participants and methods
99mTc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide was obtained from a lyophilized formulation with radiochemical purities of more than 97%, determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Whole-body images from four healthy individuals were acquired at 20 min, 2, 6, and 24 h after 99mTc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide administration. Regions of interest were drawn around the source organs on each time frame. Each region of interest was corrected by background, attenuation, scattered radiation, and physical decay. The image sequence was used to extrapolate the 99mTc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide time–activity curves of each organ to adjust the biokinetic model and calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation doses. Furthermore, in a patient suspicious of harboring an insulinoma, whole-body single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images were obtained at 3 h.Results
For four healthy individuals, the blood activity showed a half-life value of 1.20 min for the fast component (T1/2 α=ln 2/34.71), 8.7 min for the first slow component (T1/2 β=ln 2/4.76), and 1.7 h for the second slow component (T1/2 γ=ln 2/0.401). The average equivalent doses calculated for a study using 555 MBq were 15.10, 4.13, 3.08, 2.61, and 1.90 mSv for the kidneys, upper large intestinal wall, lower large intestinal wall, small intestine, and liver, respectively, with an effective dose of 2.33±0.51 mSv. In addition, images from a patient showed an average tumor/heart (blood) ratio of 2.7 at 3 h.Conclusion
All the absorbed doses were comparable to those known for most of the 99mTc studies. 99mTc-exendin(9-39)/octreotide obtained from kit formulations showed high tumor uptake in a patient with a malignant lesion, making it a promising imaging radiopharmaceutical to target GLP-1R and SSTR.