Age-Related Differences in Psychosocial Function of Children with Craniofacial Anomalies

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Abstract

Background:

Age is a frequent consideration for surgical timing in pediatric craniofacial surgery for optimal psychosocial development. However, systematic evaluations of the effects of age in children under active treatment have not been thoroughly evaluated.

Methods:

Ninety-nine patients (age, 8 to 17 years; 46.5 percent male) from the University of California, Los Angeles, Craniofacial Clinic were prospectively evaluated using the Pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System to assess anger, anxiety, depression, and quality of peer relationships. Patients were stratified into three age groups by years: group A, 8 to 10 years, n = 30; group B, 11 to 13 years, n = 41; and group C, 14 to 17 years, n = 28. Analyses of variance and logistic regression analyses were performed.

Results:

Significant differences in anxiety (F2,96 = 5.1; p = 0.008), depression (F2,96 = 9.7; p < 0.001), peer relationships (F2,96 = 3.5; p = 0.03), and anger (F2,96 = 4.9; p = 0.009) were found among the age groups. Group A demonstrated the highest anxiety, highest depression, and lowest peer relationship scores overall. Although there were no differences in anger between groups A and C, group B had the lowest anger scores. Children with poor scores of higher severity, defined as greater than 1 SD worse than the national mean, were compared. Group A contributed the highest percentages of more severely affected children in all categories. A logistic regression analysis demonstrated that group A was a statistically significant predictor for scores of higher severity in both anxiety (OR, 3.8; 95 percent CI, 1.3 to 11.5; p = 0.02) and peer relationships (OR, 3.4; 95 percent CI, 1.3 to 9.3; p = 0.02).

Conclusions:

Children between 8 and 10 years of age with craniofacial anomalies constitute a high-risk subset for psychosocial dysfunction. The authors’ work suggests that tight surveillance with family and school awareness may be necessary for this age group.

CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

Risk, II.

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