Adipose tissue inflammation in insulin resistance: review of mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

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Obesity is an increasingly costly and widespread epidemic, effecting 1 in 10 adults worldwide. It has been causally linked with both the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, both of which are associated with increased chronic inflammation. The exact mechanisms through which inflammation may contribute to both MetS and IR are numerous and their details are still largely unknown. Recently, micro-RNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as potential interventional targets due to their potential preventive roles in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including MetS and obesity. The purpose of this review paper is to discuss some of the known roles of miRNAs as mediators of inflammation-associated obesity and IR and how omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be used as a nutritional intervention for these disorders.

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