Since 1985, interferon (IFN)-ω, a type I IFN, has been identified in many animals, but not canines and mice. It has been demonstrated to have antiviral, anti-proliferation, and antitumor activities that are similar to those of IFN-α. To date, IFN-ω has been explored as a treatment option for some diseases or viral infections in humans and other animals. Studies have revealed that human IFN-ω displays antitumor activities in some models of human cancer cells and that it can be used to diagnose some diseases. While recombinant feline IFN-ω has been licensed in several countries for treating canine parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus infections, it also exhibits a certain efficacy when used to treat other viral infections or diseases. This review examines the known biological activity of IFN-ω and its clinical applications. We expect that the information provided in this review will stimulate further studies of IFN-ω as a therapeutic agent.