The Relationship Between and Factors Influencing Staff Nurses' Perceptions of Nurse Manager Caring and Exposure to Workplace Bullying in Multiple Healthcare Settings
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between, and factors influencing, staff nurse perceptions of nurse manager caring (NMC) and the perceived exposure to workplace bullying (WPB) in multiple healthcare settings.BACKGROUND
Workplace bullying is commonplace, increasing, and detrimental to the health and availability of our nursing workforce. Positive relationships between a nurse manager (NM) and staff increase staff satisfaction and reduce turnover. Still unknown, however, is whether a caring relationship between manager and staff can reduce staff nurse perception of exposure to WPB.METHODS
On the basis of Watson's theory that caring is reciprocal in nature, a descriptive correlational design was used to assess 156 staff nurses' self-report of NMC and their exposure to negative acts using the Caring Factor Survey–Caring of the Manager and the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised instruments.RESULTS
There is a significant inverse relationship between NMC and exposure to WPB in the nursing workplace. Gender, work environment, and a high workload influenced these findings.CONCLUSIONS
This study highlights the importance of caring leadership to reduce exposure to negative behaviors. The data lend support to the idea of educating NMs regarding the application of caring behaviors to support staff at the point of care.