Complete antithrombin replacement for anticoagulation for cardiopulmonary bypass to repair severe infective mitral valve endocarditis

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We present a case of a 26-year-old patient with severe infective endocarditis complicated with cerebral septic emboli that required essentially complete replacement of his circulating antithrombin activity to achieve an activated coagulation time near 480 s. The need for this degree of antithrombin administration may have been secondary to ongoing systemic inflammation and consequent thrombin generation despite blood culture results demonstrating no bacteremia. In sum, ongoing loss of endogenous antithrombin activity secondary to inflammation and the need for more than 80% normal activity to conduct safe cardiopulmonary bypass may require extraordinary administration of exogenous antithrombin in similar settings.

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