Ovarian cancer remains to be the most lethal of all gynecologic malignancies. There is no effective screening test proven to reduce the mortality associated with this disease. Costs of treating ovarian cancer are substantial and among the highest of all cancer types. Therefore, it is essential to pursue strategies to prevent ovarian cancer that are cost-effective in the context of our health care system. There are 2 subgroups of women for whom ovarian cancer prevention strategies have been evaluated for effectiveness and costs: (1) general population at risk, and (2) BRCA mutation carriers with a high lifetime risk.