Cost-effectiveness analyses are an important methodology in assessing whether a health care technology is suitable for widespread adoption. Common models used by economists, such as decision trees and Markov models, are appropriate for noninfectious diseases where treatment and exposure are independent. Diseases whose treatment and exposure are dependent require dynamic models to incorporate the nonlinear transmission effect. Two different types of models are often used for dynamic cost-effectiveness analyses: compartmental models and individual models. In this methodology-focused literature review, we describe each model type and summarize the literature associated with each using the example of health care-associated infections (HAIs).Methods:
We conducted a review of the literature to identify dynamic cost-effectiveness analyses that examined interventions to prevent or treat HAIs. To be included in the review, studies needed to have each of 3 necessary components: involve economics, such as cost-effectiveness analysis and evidence of economic theory, use a dynamic transmission model, and examine HAIs.Results:
Of the 9 articles published between 2005 and 2016 that met criteria to be included in our study, 3 used compartmental models and 6 used individual models.Conclusions:
Very few published studies exist that use dynamic transmission models to conduct economic analyses related to HAIs and even fewer studies have used these models to perform cost-effectiveness analyses.