Effect of Cobicistat on Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF): What Is True for TAF May Also Be True for TDF

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The dose of tenofovir alafenamide is reduced from 25 to 10 mg daily when given with boosting agents. However, such dose reduction has never been adopted for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). In this study, we aim to quantify the effect of cobicistat (COBI) both on tenofovir concentrations and TDF durability in real life setting.


HIV-positive patients receiving TDF-containing antiretroviral therapies with at least 1 assessment of tenofovir plasma trough concentrations were included in the study. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed considering tenofovir concentration as the dependent variable and clinical characteristics as independent covariates. Subsequently, survival and Cox analyses were performed considering as the primary outcome TDF discontinuation for any reasons.


Patients were given TDF with protease inhibitors/ritonavir (n = 212), non–nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (n = 176), integrase inhibitors (dolutegravir or raltegravir, n = 46), or with elvitegravir/COBI (ELV/COBI) (n = 76). By multivariate analysis, concomitant antiretroviral therapies resulted significantly associated with tenofovir levels, with the highest drug concentrations measured in patients given ELV/COBI. By survival analysis, we found that patients given TDF with ELV/COBI had the lowest rate of drug durability. Overall, these patients had a 2.3-fold increased risk to experience TDF discontinuation.


Coadministration with COBI resulted in significantly higher tenofovir concentrations and higher TDF discontinuation compared with other antiretroviral regimens. Accordingly, the possibility that the lack of proper dose adjustment for TDF when given with COBI might have biased the safety comparisons with tenofovir alafenamide during registrative trials cannot be ruled out.

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