Platelet adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibition provides no advantage in predicting need for platelet transfusion or massive transfusion.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Thrombelastography platelet mapping is a useful assay to assess antiplatelet therapy. Inhibited response to the adenosine diphosphate receptor on platelets occurs early after injury, but recent work suggests this alteration occurs even with minor trauma. However, the utility of thrombelastography platelet mapping, specifically the percent of adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibition, in predicting outcomes and guiding platelet transfusion in trauma-induced coagulopathy remains unknown We assessed the role of percent of adenosine diphosphate-inhibition in predicting survival, requirement for massive transfusion or platelet transfusion in patients at risk for trauma-induced coagulopathy.

METHODS

Thrombelastography platelet mapping was assessed in 303 trauma activation patients from 2014-2016 and in 89 healthy volunteers. Percent of adenosine diphosphate-inhibition is presented as median and interquartile range. We compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of percent of adenosine diphosphate-inhibition, platelet count, and rapid thrombelastography maximum amplitude for in-hospital mortality, massive transfusion (>10 red blood cells or death/6 hours), and platelet transfusion (>0 platelet units or death/6 hour).

RESULTS

Overall, 35 (11.5%) patient died, 27 (8.9%) required massive transfusion and 46, platelet transfusions (15.2%). Median percent of adenosine diphosphate-inhibition was 42.5% (interquartile range: 22.4-69.1%), compared with 4.3 % (interquartile range: 0-13.5%) in healthy volunteers (P < .0001). Patients that died, had a massive transfusion, or platelet transfusion had higher percent of adenosine diphosphate-inhibition than those that did not (P < .05 for all). However, percent of adenosine diphosphate-inhibition did not add significantly to the predictive performance of maximum amplitude or platelet count for any of the 3 outcomes, after adjustment for confounders. Subgroup analyses by severe traumatic brain injury, severe injury and requirement of red blood cells showed similar results.

CONCLUSION

Adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibition did not add predictive value to predicting mortality, massive transfusion, or platelet transfusion. Thus, the role of thrombelastography platelet mapping as a solitary tool to guide platelet transfusions in trauma requires continued refinement.

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